The Magical Process of Digestion
Digestion is the process by which we sustain life. It is what fuels our everyday activities from something as simple as watching the news, to something as complicated as running backwards up a mountain. We sustain life through the six essential nutrients we take in, including carbohydrates, protein, fats, minerals, water, and vitamins.

Mechanical Digestion

The food is chewed in the mouth by the teeth in a process called mastication (the french word for chewing). The tongue moves the food around in the mouth and is used ensure sure each piece of food is moved around to be chewed evenly. The food then enters the esophagus through the epiglottis which closes off the windpipe to prevent choking. The esophagus goes through involuntary contractions called peristalsis which push the food downward. Food enters the stomach through the opening of the esophageal sphincter, where it is churned and mixed through muscular contractions. When the food is mixed, it is released through the pyloric sphincter into the duodenum of the small intestine. Segmentation contractions spread the chyme in both directions so it is spread thin and more easily absorbed. This also causes the food to move downward and the ileocecal sphincter opens to the la
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rge intestine, and its function is very important for preventing bacteria from going back into the small intestine. In the large intestine mechanical digestion occurs as water is absorbed from the chyme. At the end of the large intestine is the anus which has two muscular sphincters; internal and external sphincters which hold in the excrement in until a nice toilet is found!
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Chemical Digestion

Chemical digestion begins in the concaves of the mouth believe it or not! The mouth produces excess saliva even when food is smelt or seen from a far away distance! "Saliva has a amalayze enzyme which is called ptyalin, its job is to break down starches into dextrose and maltose when it adds water molecules into the starch." (Livestrong). Food, while in the mouth sends a signal in the brain which sends a signal to the stomach to begin acid production. Stomach acid contains a enzyme called pepsin that helps break down protein. The chyme mixture of partway digested food is deposited into the small intestine where it is mixed with bile from the liver, enzymes located in the small intestine originating from the pancreas, and fluids secreted from the intestinal walls. Bile is responsible for helping dissolving the fat. Chyme is then absorbed through the villi (finger-like projections on the small intestinal wall their is surface area to make for more efficient absorption). The remaining undigested material including water, fiber, and cellulose are released from the body.
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The stomach has many layers which help keep the HCl inside.






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Specific body Parts!!

The Mouth!
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The mouth is the first stop on the path to nutrient absorption, the saliva, comes from the mucous membrane which lines the inside of the mouth.






The Endocrine System:

Individual glands and their functions

Pineal body: Hormone is melatonin which is involved with biological rhythms including daily and seasonal. It is most famous for regulating sleep cycles. It is regulated by the light and dark hours, and is of the chemical class amine.

Hypothalamus: Releases hormones by the posterior pituitary, and releasing and inhibiting hormones that regulate the anterior pituitary.

Pituitary gland:




The Bones

Skull

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The skull forms a large protective region over the brain, this is essential to ensure the safekeeping of the body's most important and complicated organ. However, as a baby the skull is not fully formed, it has many cartilaginous regions including: the anterior fontanelle, sagittal suture, posterior fontanelle, and the lambdoid suture they eventually fuse and form bone as the baby ages. The purpose for that is so that the skull is not crushed during birth, which would kill the baby.

The Spine

external image spinal-description.jpgDifferent sections of the spine are split up based on how the spinal veterbe are aligned. The cernival spine has seven vertebrae, the thoracic spine has twelve vertebrae, and the lumbar spine has five vertebrae, the Sacrum has five fused bones, and the coccyx with four fused bones. There are several known diseases of the spine including herniated discs, scoliosis, Sheuermann's disease, and tumors or trauma which could be caused by a collusion.
  • Herniated disks result from a straining and cause pain, numbness, and weakness. The lower back is the most common for a slipped disk.They occur most often in older men after strenuous activity.
  • Scoliosis is when the spine curves laterally



The Bones of the Arm

The arm allows us to pick up things and put them down with intensity. The upper arm consists of the humerus, the lower arm consists of the radius and ulna, the hand consists of many small bones at the bottom. The hand is capable of pronation with thumb facing towards body and supination with the hand in anatomical position. The wing span of the arms is actually a good indicator of height, with the arms spread wide and measured.
Common arm injuries include tendonitis which happens usually around the elbow from either golf or tennis.
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The Bones of the Leg

The bones of the lower leg are the tibia and fibula, the bones frun parallel and are connected by an interosseous membrane. They articulate in a similar way to the lower arm bones. The tibia carries all the body weight, its the lower leg's main bone and is found on the medial side. The fibula runs parallel to the tibia and doesnt carry much weight it only acts as a balancer, its bottom end sticks out at the anckle,.

The Bones Of The Lower Leg: Tibia and Fibula
The lower legs consist of the Tibia and the Fibula. These two bones run parallel and are connected by an Interosseous Membrane. They also articulate with each other.

Tibia (Shin-bone)

The Tibia articulates with the Femur (upper leg) and the Talus (Ankle). This bone carries all the body’s weight. It is the main bone of the lower leg and can be found on the more medial side of the leg.

Fibula

Although this bone runs parallel to the Tibia, it doesn’t actually carry much weight. Instead, it acts as a stabilizer. It articulates with the Tibia and the Talus. It’s inferior end (Lateral Malleolus) is the bone that sticks out on the outside of the ankle. The Fibula can be found on the lateral side (outside) of the lower leg.

The bone of the upper leg includes the femur. It starts at the hip joint and continues downward all the way to just before the patella. It is the largest, longest, and strongest bone in the human body.




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The Ribs!

They are a series of long curved bones separated into several categories for a total of twelve total ribs. The sternum is what the top seven ribs directly attach to through cartilage (for ease of breathing), the next three attach to through the connection of the seventh rib, and the bottom two ribs are known as floating ribs, with do not attach to the sternum at all. The ribs help protect the vital organs of the chest, including the heart, and lungs.

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The muscles

Major muscles of the human body!


Pectoralis major

Makes up the major muscle of the chest, the origin is the sternal half of the clavicle, the the breadth of the half of the anterior surface of the sternum, the ribs up to the fifth one, all these points of origin end in an insertion point of a five centimeter tendon on the bicipital groove of the humerus. The actions the pectoralis major performs are adducing and flexing of the humerus.Poland's Syndrome is a birth defect where the these is missing from one side of the body. The defect is not life threatening, but the person with the disease will have a hard time moving their effected arm, the latissmus dorsi will be able to assist in movement if worked on, but they are not a major contributor in abduction.



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Pectoralis Minor
Is a triangular muscle beneath the pectoralis major, the three fibers origin is the converge to form a flat tendon which inserts at the cortorid process of the scapula.The pectoralis minor depresses the point of the shoulder, drawing the scapula inferior and medial, towards the thorax, and throwing its inferior angle posteriorly.

Intercostal muscles are several groups of muscles that run between the ribs, and help form and move the chest wall. The intercostal muscles are mainly involved in the mechanical aspect of breathing. There are two main layers including the external intercostal muscles, internal intercostal muscles, and the innermost intercostal muscles. The external intercostal muscles are responsible for quiet and forced inhaling, while the internal intercostal muscles are responsible for forced exhaling. The external originate on ribs one through eleven and the insertion on ribs two through tweleve. The internal originate on ribs two through twelve and insert on ribs one through eleven.

External oblique
Is located on the side of the abdomen, it is broad, thin, and square shaped, it is not visible on most people due to the large collection of fat in that area. Its origin is the fifth through tweleveth ribs on their cartilage. They insets into the anterior half of the outerlip of the iliac crest.
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Rectus adominus
Is the six pack muscle which runs vertically along the anterior wall of the abdomen, they consist of two lines of vertical muscle, with a line of connective tissue in the middle. There are some genetic variations which cause the six abdominal muscles not to line up properly where they are slightly offset.

Deltoid: Is a thick triangular muscle covering the shoulder joint. It is used to adduct, extend, flex, and rotate both externally and internally, the arm. The origin is the anterior lateral third of the clavical. The insertion is the deltiod tuberosity of the humerus.
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Biceps Brachii: Is a two headed muscle which lie on the upper arm between the shoulder and the elbow. The origin is on the scapula. Its function is flexion of the elbow and supinating the forearm.



In human anatomy, the biceps brachii, or simply biceps in common parlance, is, as the name implies, a two-headed muscle. The biceps lie on the upper arm between the shoulder and the elbow. Both heads arise on the scapula and join to form a single muscle belly which is attached to the upper forearm. While the biceps crosses both the shoulder and elbow joints, its main function is at the latter where it flexes the elbow and supinates the forearm. Both these movements are used when opening a bottle with a corkscrew: first biceps unscrews the cork (supination), then it pulls the cork out (flexion). [1[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biceps#cite_note-Lippert-0|]]]

























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